Her seminal work is considered to be Wheatfield – A Confrontation, which catapulted awareness of her practice to international prominence. Such works are usually site specific—created for and utilizing aspects or characteristics of a particular location. One of the first examples of Land art, A Line Made By Walking, was created by artist Richard Long in 1967 by walking the same path over and over again in Wiltshire, United Kingdom. In this project, the artist modelled her body into different landscapes to show the indissoluble connection between the earth and human nature. Previously attributed only to Christo, the outdoor art projects were retroactively accredited to both Christo and his wife Jeanne-Claude in 1994. Travelling for several years across Iowa and Mexico, Mendieta used natural materials to bind her body with the four elements in order to sculp herself with and in mother nature. Exploring the relationship between relative and absolute, Walter de Maria used geometric forms to create a series of repetitions in his sculptures, installations and land works. The crop was harvested on August 16 1982 when it yielded over 1000 pounds of healthy, golden wheat. Land Art, also called Earth Art, Environmental Art or Earthworks, is primarily a sculptural movement encompassing creative work that integrates physical or conceptual elements of the landscape into the finished piece.The most famous of these are often known as much for their monumental scale as for the intrinsic qualities of the artwork itself. From 1969, Long began to explore his walking practice in wilderness regions around the world, including a project in the Alps. No survey of land art would be complete without including the seminal contribution of Robert Smithson. Heizer has since then realised several large-scale projects including Nine Nevada Depressions (1968), Primitive Dye Paintings (1969) and Double Negative (1969). Milton Becerra is a Venezuelan land artist who pioneered this form of art in Latin America in the 1970s. In recent years, Goldsworthy has started exploring the practice of performing art, conceived by him as personal acts often in public places. Starting his career with what he called “negative painting”, a series of shaped canvases, he made his first negative land work North, East, South, West in the late 1960s. Use this list to make one just like it, then re-rank it to fit your opinion. The many swirls and meshes make it a unique piece of work. These are land art’s cathedrals, then, but a number of other artists have worked beautifully in and with the landscape, as the photographs that follow show. Trained initially as a painter, he turned his art quickly toward sculpture with a practise at the intersection of  Minimal Art, Conceptual Art and Land Art. It is also an art form that is created in nature, using natural materials such as soil, rock (bed rock, boulders, stones), organic media (trees, grass) and water.The works frequently exist in the open, located well away from civilization, left to change and erode under natural conditions. Impressionism was an art movement that emerged in France in the middle of the 19th century. In the 1960s and 1970s land art protested "ruthless commercialization" of art in America. In 2017 the Holt/Smithson Foundation was founded to continue the creative and investigative spirit of hers and her husband Robert Smithson’s works, who, over their careers, developed innovative methods of exploring our relationship with the planet, largely through expanding the limits of monumental earthwork and sculptural practice. That’s why it emerged to counter the effect of so-called commercialization. Recent projects include The Gates, (2005) in Central Park, NY. Perhaps the most famous of all earth works, the Jetty has been submerged for a good portion of its lifetime, due to changing water levels, but periodically emerges. At the time of its donation to the Dia Art Foundation in 1999 Spiral Jetty had spent most of its existence submerged beneath the lake’s waters and barely visible save from the air. These man-made landmarks and monuments are so well known because of their location or special architecture and of course are famous attractions which would be great to visit with your family. The movement sought to… In the 1980s, while pursuing his large land sculpture projects, Long started using natural materials in indoor settings. All the greatest artists associated with the land art movement are included here, along with clickable names for more details on that particular painter or sculptor. Through branches, leaves, rocks and ice, he creates several repeating patterns such as spirals, circles, or snaking lines. For these reasons, it is one of the most expensive paintings ever sold by an American artist as it was sold for a huge $140 million. Born in Budapest, Hungary in 1931, her family survived the Nazi occupation and moved to Sweden in the mid-1940s. Throughout her career, Holt also produced works in other media, including film and photography, and wrote books and articles about art. He was nominated in 1984, 1987 and 1988, and then won the award in 1989 for White Water Line. The ephemerality that is at the core of these projects is a reflection of a constantly changing natural world and fragile ecology. The subjects of this radical conceptual land art project are time, space and distance, extended to a vast scale. Through her photo and video series Silueta (1973-1980), Mendieta became one of the pioneers of earth art. His new work of this time began to use combinations of materials to form three dimensional sculptural compositions, resulting in a series of ‘non-sites’ works in which earth and rocks collected from treks to a specific area were installed in the gallery as sculptures, often incorporating maps, bins, mirrors, glass and neon. Through its very nature land art could reject the museum or gallery as the accepted venue to host and investigate artistic production, whilst simultaneously by its focus on the objecthood of the materials, closely overlapped with some of the concerns of minimalism, a slightly earlier antecedent of which land art is sometimes considered a kind of offshoot. Some of Pharrell’s favourites are contemporary artists like Takashi Murakami and KAWS, and he also owns pieces by Keith Haring and Daniel Arsham. The field was maintained for four months, weeded, fertilized, sprayed and an irrigation system set up. Jacob van Ruisdael. Even though the concerns of the land art movement centered around rejection of the commercialisation of art-making, it is likely this emergent trend would not have gained traction without the burgeoning ecological movement of the time. The seeds hand sown and the furrows covered with soil. In 1973 he opened his first solo exhibition based on the arrangement of different hexagonal modules in space based on Kasimir Malevich’s White Cube theory, and also on Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Tractatus logico-philosophicus concept; investigating colours, their behaviour in space and the division of forms through colour ranges. Influenced by his peers such as Donald Judd and by Dadaism, Suprematism and Constructivism, he developed his interest toward viewer-interactive, serialised and numbered sculptures. With a production of over 200 works, Mendieta used her body and the earth as a medium to create controversial sculptures. The latter are made out of organic and ephemeral materials and, following the life cycle, are meant to disappear. Land Art, a term coined by the artist Robert Smithson, is a movement that occurred in the U.S. during the late 1960s and during the 1970s. The project is a mile and half long and constructed of rocks, sand and concrete primarily mined from the surrounding land and mixed on site. Much of Goldsworthy’s land art is transient and ephemeral, leading many to view it as a comment on the Earth’s fragility.But for Goldsworthy, the picture is more complicated. Previously attributed only to Christo, the outdoor art projects were retroactively accredited to both Christo and his wife Jeanne-Claude in 1994. Coinciding with this rejection of urbanism and its associated life choices, land art often espoused various utopian and spiritual yearnings for Planet Earth as the home of mankind. Beginning in the early 2000s, however, sustained drought in Utah caused the water level to recede, and Spiral Jetty became visible for the first prolonged period in its history. For example, the Spiral Jetty, a famous piece of land art created in 1970 in the Great Salt Lake, is made with a collection of stones, salt, and mud. It was established by a group of pioneering artists who investigated natural sites, alternative modes of artistic production, and ways to circumvent the commercial art system. {#nodes}, “Don’t think about making art, just get it done. Towards the 1980s Becerra relocated to Paris and developed a new perspective based largely on his research and perception of the Amazonian Yanomamo tribe’s customs. These notable land art period artists are organized alphabetically, but you may sort this information by clicking any column. Starting his career with what he called “negative painting”, a series of shaped canvases, he made his first negative land work, Heizer has since then realised several large-scale projects including, In 1972 Heizer started working on his most ambitious monument, a magnum opus called. Intricate land art patterns appear just for some hours during the day under the garden rake of the artist before the tide sets in and the waves wash them away. List of famous land art artists, with images, bios, and information about their notable works. This straight line in a grass field is a sculpture created out of the artist’s constant and repetitive movement, where the compositional element consists solely of broken down grass juxtaposed with the unaffected areas either side of the walked on strip. Land Art is a practice or form of art production that utilises natural materials or sites the work outside in various settings in order to interact with nature in some way. Well known for his capacity to build large-scale works and explore the relationship between positive and negative space, Michael Heizer has been a prominent figure of the land art movement since his twenties in the late 1960s. Photo via Wikimedia Commons. Through branches, leaves, rocks and ice, he creates several repeating patterns such as spirals, circles, or snaking lines. His most famous work is Spiral Jetty in Utah, constructed entirely from basalt, earth and salt. The artist, Robert Smithson, sculpted a large jetty in a spiral shape which protrudes into the waters of the lake. “When I make something, in a field, street or altering the landscape, it may vanish, but it’s part of the history of those places,” he says in another interview. In a series of repetitive movements or long solitary walks, Long aimed to break the language and ambition of art and to bring it to a more primitive, personal and elemental level. Sometimes known also as environmental art, or even earthworks, the movement of land art emerged in the 1960s and gained in popularity and momentum throughout the following decade. 31. Smithson became best known for the earthworks Spiral Jetty (1970), Broken Circle/Spiral Hill (1971), and Amarillo Ramp (1973). While they are deciding, make even more art.” - Andy Warhol. The practice of transformative wrapping is the signature of this land art couple. Enjoy the […] This Cuban feminist artist is known as one of the pioneers of the Land Art, especially for the manner the human body relates to and returns to nature. Sun Tunnels consists of four massive concrete tunnels (18 feet long and nine feet in diameter), which are arranged in a crossed configuration to form a total length of 86 feet (26 m) along each axis. In 1972 Heizer started working on his most ambitious monument, a magnum opus called City. Following the concept that humans are an unrelenting part of nature, Goldsworthy uses the earth as a co-author of his Minimalistic aesthetic practice. In a “strike” of divinity, the statue is prone to lightning strikes and in 2014, the statue’s fingers were damaged from a bolt of lightning. It is also known as environmental art, Earthworks and Earth art.. The ephemerality that is at the core of these projects is a reflection of a constantly changing natural world and fragile ecology. Land art was part of the wider conceptual art movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Agnes Denes is a Hungarian-born American conceptual artist based in New York. She is known for works in a wide range of media – from poetry and philosophical writings, to complex diagrams rendered both by hand and by computer (which she terms Visual Philosophy), sculpture, and international environmental installations, such as Wheatfield—A Confrontation (1982), a two-acre wheatfield in downtown Manhattan. Two hundred truckloads of dirt were brought in and 285 furrows cleared of rocks and garbage and dug by hand. Found berries, leaves, branches, and blossoms are transformed into captivating pieces evocative of mysterious portals and dreamy fairy realms deep in the woods. The artist’s legacy tells a story of human equality, of cyclical sequences between life and death and of the omnipresence force of mother nature. List of famous land art artists, with images, bios, and information about their notable works. The hip-hop singer’s Miami penthouse is famous for its massive art collection. Robert Smithson (January 2, 1938 – July 20, 1973) was an American artist known for sculpture and land art who often used drawing and photography in relation to the spatial arts. In the completion of this earth sculpture, Smithson had to rearrange rock, soil and algae to form a long (1500 feet) spiral-shaped jetty jutting out into the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This layered dialogue between landscape and flesh became the artist’s way to re-shape fragmented identities of the oppressed female artist, refugee identity politics and questions of ecology and the body. Famous Land Art Examples Richard Long, “A Line Made By Walking” (1967) Richard Long, “A Line Made By Walking,” 1967. In this work, 603,870 square meters of floating pink propylene fabric was floated on the water to surround eleven islands in Biscayne Bay, Miami. After an early career as a painter where he was influenced by the Expressionist painters of the downtown scene in NYC, Smithson modified his practise in 1964, when his work became influenced and aligned with those of the Minimalists. The visitor can both walk inside the grid or look from afar and is subjected to a physical and psychic experience. Impression, Sunrise (1872) – Claude Monet. Top 10 Famous Landmarks in the World The most famous man-made monuments in the world. Today Holt is most widely known for her large-scale environmental works, Sun Tunnels and Dark Star Park. Their most well-known monumental projects include the wrapping of a million square feet of coastline near Sydney, After Jeanne-Claude’s death in 2009, Christo continued to pursue the couple’s projects, including. With these monumental constructions he forever changed received notions of sculptural form in contemporary art by removing art from the gallery context altogether, moving it into, and part of, the uncultivated landscape. Robert Smithson was an American artist best known for his innovations in Land and Earth Art. During this period, exponents of land art rejected the museum or gallery as the setting of artistic activity and developed monumental landscape projects which were beyond the reach of traditional transportable sculpture and the commercial art market, although photographic documentation was often presented in normal gallery spaces. The commission launched the 21-year-old into art-world stardom, and cast her as an heir of the great Land Artists of the prior generation. The Son of Man Top 10 Light artists in modern and contemporary art, Top 10 Most Iconic Art and Fashion Collaborations, Top 10 Influential Curators Shaping the Art World Today. These things can be made into mandalas, spirals, shapes, animals, or patterns…. Her works are multi layered and highly philosophical, relating to multiple art movements such as performance and body art, conceptualism and land art. This eye catching statue, with an infamous art deco design, is as mysterious as it is comforting to locals and tourists alike. Let everyone else decide if it’s good or bad, whether they love it or hate it. The sole documentation that remains is the colored photographs taken by the artist. It was created during a four-month period in the spring and summer of 1982 when Denes, with the support of the Public Art Fund, planted a field of golden wheat on two acres of rubble-strewn landfill near Wall Street in lower Manhattan (now the site of Battery Park City and the World Financial Center). Built over more than four decades, City is nearing completion and will open to the public in 2020. Extremely attached to Venezuelan culture and Amazonian ecology, Becerra applied his artistic practice to a specifically political agenda, related to environmental concerns particular to the region. With the aim to completely transform landscape into an entirely new environment and sculptural form, and to elicit an immediate and powerful aesthetic impact in the visitor consisting of both the sublime and joy in beauty, the temporary outdoor sculptures have forced a reconsideration of land art’s potential and impact. However, working within the field of arts, many of them have spent a lot of time exploring the relationship between mankind's world and the natural environment. Among other things, it is is characterized by accurate depiction of light, candid poses and vivid colors.This painting is famous for giving a name to the Impressionist movement and has now become its quintessential symbol. Starting May 27 and continuing until September 3, 2012, the Museum of Contemporary Art (or MOCA) in Los Angeles will be presenting Ends of the Earth: Land Art to 1974, the first large-scale, historical-thematic exhibition to deal broadly with land art.There will be works by more than 80 artists from all around the world including Japan, Israel, Iceland and Europe. Their most well-known monumental projects include the wrapping of a million square feet of coastline near Sydney, Wrapped Cost (1968-69);  Valley Curtain (1970 – 72), the 400 meters long cloth stretched across Rifle Gap; the 5.5 meters high and 39.4 kilometres long Running Fence (1972-76), the Surrounded Islands (1980 – 83). As a early practitioner of environmental art, she created Rice/Tree/Burial in 1968 in Sullivan County, New York which, according to the renowned art historian and curator Peter Selz, was “probably the first large scale site-specific piece anywhere”. Every well-known or influential figure in this movement is listed below. Land art started out in the late 1960s and early ’70s as a male-dominated field, “with a few exceptions,” as James Meyer put it in a 2007 interview with Holt for the book Sightlines. She began her artistic career as a photographer and video artist, and it is from this perspective that she approached her later earthworks, which were conceived as devices for tracking the positions of the sun, earth and stars, and for relating these celestial elements to a fixed point on earth. Visitors approaching the site can see the tunnels from as far away as two kilometres, as the massive concrete forms differentiate themselves strongly from the barren plane on which they are situated. He focuses on creating projects that enhance the beauty of nature, the effect of time and the relationship between the human and the land. His work is on permanent display in Britain at the Tate and Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery as well as galleries in America, Switzerland and Australia.... David John Nash, OBE RA (born 14 November 1945) is a British sculptor based in Blaenau Ffestiniog. Through his monumental excavations and constructions, Heizer analyses scale and forms to build works evoking fear and awe at the same time capable of outlasting humanity. The Memorial (or “anti-monument,” as Lin calls it) surely bears elements of earthworks, cutting into the surrounding landscape with a … That is when his signature works with yarns, fabric and light were intertwined with other organic elements like rocks, and led him to develop series as Chin-cho-rro (1995), Gotas (Drops 1990) and Nidos (Nests 1995). Through his monumental excavations and constructions, Heizer analyses scale and forms to build works evoking fear and awe at the same time capable of outlasting humanity. Trained initially as a painter, he turned his art quickly toward sculpture with a practise at the intersection of  Minimal Art, Conceptual Art and Land Art. In May 1982 after months of preparations the wheat field was planted two blocks from Wall Street and the World Trade Center and facing the Statue of Liberty. Contemporary art is what gets Pharrell Williams’ heart racing. The sole records of the projects are the photographs, maps and text work in which Long collect places names, records of materials and measurements of time and distances. Art, landscape and nature meet in a series of intense optical effects, that change according to time and space. Land art was inspired by minimal art and conceptual art but also by modern movements such as The work was actually constructed twice; after contemplating the result for two days Smithson called the crew back and had the shape altered to its present configuration, an effort requiring moving 7,000 tons of basalt rock during an additional three days of construction. Smithson's large-scale projects employed earth and other natural resources to construct works that both manipulated and preserved the natural landscape. Whilst the key element of land art was often its monumentality and its position in a site-specific context, it also related closely to conceptual art in that the planning and photo documentation of execution and final results could often be exhibited in a gallery context, even if the work itself was located elsewhere. This list includes James Turrell, Richard Long and more. Here are the Top 10 famous landmarks in the world. Per se, due to the emergence of Pop art and other art cultures, we see the phase of commercialization of art. The diameters of the holes differ in relation to the magnitude of the stars represented. During the 1970s Becerra created A Blanket for the Meadow in Caracas’ residential area, Lomas de Prados del Este; and Analysis of a Process in Time, where he denounced the effects of pollution and its deterioration of the landscape. Spiral Jetty is an earthwork sculpture constructed in April 1970 and was built on the northeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake near Rozel Point in Utah entirely of mud, salt crystals and basalt rocks. The work forms a 1,500-foot-long (460 m) anti-clockwise coil jutting from the shore of the lake. Pursuing the notion of art as a temporary object, he works with slate, driftwood, or stones, often sourced in their original setting. He produced sculptures out of organic materials or mud paintings using his handprints applied to the wall. There is a meditative quality to Long's use of natural materials that connects him with the Land Art movement, but the relatively intimate scale of wall paintings such as this, and his continued interest in creating work for gallery or museums spaces differentiates him from some of the more physically ambitious monuments of Land Art. Exploring the relationship between relative and absolute, Walter de Maria used geometric forms to create a series of repetitions in his sculptures, installations and land works. Situated in the Nevada desert, this land work/sculpture/monument to civilisation is inspired by Native American Traditions and ancient pre-Colombian ritual cities like Teotihuacan. 6. This famous painting by Jackson Pollock is a signature piece of art that depicts the chaos raging within Pollock at the time of painting. Land Art is a work of art created with and embodied by the physical landscape. Each tunnel reacts to the sun differently, aligned with the sunrise, sunset, of the summer or winter solstice. This British sculptor entered the land art pantheon by making the landscape the main field of his work. Basically it involves making sculptures and art from things you might find in nature, such as pebbles, rocks, twigs, sand, pine cones, shells, seed heads, leaves. These holes cast spots of daylight in the dark interiors of the tunnels, which appear almost like the star constellations themselves, projected against the interior surface. Nancy Holt was an American artist most known for her public sculpture, installation art and land art. Art World How Snail Shells Taught Scientists That a Famous Land Art Formation Was Thousands of Years Younger Than Believed. A shortening of the phrase "landscape art,” used interchangeably with Earthworks to refer to pieces made of materials derived from the earth or situated on or within a landscape. Are you ready for a wonderful virtual trip around the world? However, the art form has existed for thousands of years. The sole documentation that remains is the colored photographs taken by the artist. It made an enormous contribution in steadily growing the importance and popularity of landscape art. The grid consists of four hundred polished stainless steel poles, measuring over twenty feet tall and with a pointed tip defining a horizontal plane, the point of attraction for lightning strikes. The work is more likely to … Jacob van Ruisdael is regarded as the pre-eminent … The visitor can both walk inside the grid or look from afar and is subjected to a physical and psychic experience. Summary:-Land art is an art movement that emerged in 1960, and this art movement is centred around the rejection of commercialisation. Since 1972, Bavarian artist Nils-Udo has worked directly with nature to create stunning, site-specific works of art that celebrate the beauty of the land. Using basic geometric components and following mathematical sequences, he arranged forms to create a series of repetitions. His most known land work, Lighting Field (1977), is a grid of one mile by one kilometer installed in a remote area of the New Mexico desert. Land Art is a practice or form of art production that utilises natural materials or sites the work outside in various settings in order to interact with nature in some way. Working in and with nature, Andy Goldsworthy is a prominent land art sculptor and photographer. Well known for his capacity to build large-scale works and explore the relationship between positive and negative space, Michael Heizer has been a prominent figure of the land art movement since his twenties in the late 1960s. In the late 1960s, driven by a desire to use the landscape in new ways, the artist started his direct engagement with nature by using his walk as a medium. Land art is easy and fun and can be done by anyone. He lives and works in Scotland.... Sir Richard Julian Long, (born 2 June 1945) is an English sculptor and one of the best known British land artists. After Jeanne-Claude’s death in 2009, Christo continued to pursue the couple’s projects, including Big Air Package (2013), The Floating Piers (2016) and The London Mastaba (2018). Using basic geometric components and following mathematical sequences, he arranged forms to create a series of repetitions. Art, landscape and nature meet in a series of intense optical effects, that change according to time and space. His artworks in cast and polished steel, are set in polygonal structures that convey to the viewer a sense of absolute. His very first land art work, A Line Made by Walking (1967), represents the beginning of Long’s use of the walk as medium. Land art or Earth art is an art movement in which landscape and the work of art are inextricably linked. His artworks in cast and polished steel, are set in polygonal structures that convey to the viewer a sense of absolute. Land art, also known as earth art, was part of the wider conceptual art movement in the 1960s and 1970s. This work consisted of a series of geometrically-shaped holes dug in the Sierra Nevada desert and represented his first foray into monumental earthworks. When she was a teenager, they relocated again to the United States. They are the most recognizable images of the modern world and the most photographed. Long is the only artist to have been short-listed four times for the Turner Prize. –That’s why taking a superior point and shoot camera can be a great idea! He currently lives and works in Bristol, the city in which he was born.Long studied at Saint Martin's School of Art before going on to create work using various media including sculpture, photography and text. Lifespan: 1629 – March 10, 1682 Nationality: Dutch The Dutch Golden Age was a period in the history of the Netherlands in which Dutch trade, science, military and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. Influenced by his peers such as Donald Judd and by Dadaism, Suprematism and Constructivism, he developed his interest toward viewer-interactive, serialised and numbered sculptures. Famous Examples of Land Art Undoubtedly the most celebrated piece of earth art is Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty of 1970. In 2013 the second land art piece, “Calling the Herd” will be erected by the world famous land artist, Strijdom van der Merwe, to celebrate the Keurbooms Corridor connecting the Garden of Eden section of the Garden Route National Park to the Tsitsikamma National Park section. He participated in his first group exhibition when he was still a student, whilst studying trends such as Concrete, Neo, Kinetic, Generative and Op-art. Through breathtaking scale and monumental displays of fabrics and plastic, they have created numerous visually impressive, and often controversial, outdoor large scale works. She has said that she began to focus on the visual arts because the repeated changes in language she was forced to confront in her formative years compromised her verbal skills. The top of each tunnel has small perforations, forming variously on each the constellations of Draco, Perseus, Columba, and Capricorn, respectively. His more recent permanent site-specific installations differ in scale, tension and lifetime, but they always represent a fundamental investigation of the surrounding landscape and the beauty of its inherent materials. It took six days to construct and multiple pieces of heavy construction machinery to haul 6,650 tons of rock and earth into the lake. The tunnels not only provide essential shelter from the scorching desert sun, but once inside the dazzling light effects within the tunnels can be seen. His objective was to personally represent the potential of a pure dialogue between human and nature. His more recent permanent site-specific installations differ in scale, tension and lifetime, but they always represent a fundamental investigation of the surrounding landscape and the beauty of its inherent materials. His work can be divided into permanent and temporary projects. Today I’ve combined 100 most famous landmarks all over the world in a simple list for you. Andy Goldsworthy (born 26 July 1956) is a British sculptor, photographer and environmentalist who produces site-specific sculptures and land art situated in natural and urban settings. The latter are made out of organic and ephemeral materials and, following the life cycle, are meant to disappear. All the greatest artists associated with the land art movement are included here, along with clickable names for more details on that particular painter or sculptor. Some famous land creatives, such as Christo and Robert Smithson (who made the famous Spiral Jetty) were criticized for permanent ecological damage some of their pieces had caused. During the 1960s and 1970s, periods of dramatic unrest, political foment and social protest, land art sought to critique and rail against the overt commercialisation of art and culture. Snow Art by Simon Beck A similar example, but more durable, is the snow art of Simon Beck, a map maker and artist who has been drawing paths with his old-school snowshoes since 2004. Land art even changed the definition of what an art work could be, much like the readymade had done earlier in the century, but in addition expanded the boundaries of art in terms of the material used and the siting of it. A primary figure among the concept-based artists who emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, Denes was a pioneer of several art movements, often simultaneously investigating science, ecology, philosophy, linguistics, psychology, poetry, history, and music. These circles and line artworks are ephemeral and made to be reclaimed by nature. A provocateur by nature, Smithson was fascinated by the concepts of duality and entropy. From 1973 to 1980 he was an assistant in the workshops of the renowned masters Carlos Cruz-Diez and Jesús Soto. The grid consists of four hundred polished stainless steel poles, measuring over twenty feet tall and with a pointed tip defining a horizontal plane, the point of attraction for lightning strikes. the possibilities are endless. His work can be divided into permanent and temporary projects.