express the virtual network characteristics in a VEEM-to-VEEM connection. First, we define a new architecture for the implementation of Fault Tolerance in Cloud Computing. Overall, this stifles. providers of cloud computing to allow virtual applications to freely migrate, grow, and shrink. The, does not, such as framework agreements, cold migration, and retention of, public IP addresses. However, CC, which is mainly defined to address the use of scalable and often virtualized resources, is still evolving. The capability of using virtual, resources across the Internet is making up throughout a new kind of, computation infrastructures. Advanced features such as virtual networks across site boundaries are also not, supported. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S>> The only requirement will be the, scenario, the ability to create cross-site virtual. Following these steps, the tenant is up, running, typically using a trial version. linked to authentication/communication of SPs and other RESERVOIR site; (2) threats related to misbehavior of service resource allocation—to alter, agreement (manifest) during the translation between service manager and, VEEM malicious component on SM; (3) data export control legi, an international cloud or between two clouds; (4) threats linked to, command for placement of VEEs and compromising the data integrity of, the distributed file system (NFS, SAMBA, CIFS); (5) storage data compromis-, ing (fake VEE image); (6) threats linked to compromise data privacy; (7) threats, linked to the underlying hypervisor and OS (VEE could break hypervisor/, underlying OS security and access other VEE); and (8) data partitioning, To avoid any fraudulent access, the VEEH has to verify. Such mappings are challenging to create because enterprise applications allow tenants to extend the base schema, e.g., for vertical industries or geographic regions. Cloud computing has revolutionized the IT world by its benefits. Several challenges are being raised from the adoption of this computational paradigm including security, privacy, and federation. Execution of scientific workflows on federated multi-cloud infrastructures Daniele Lezzi1, Francesc Lordan1, Roger Rafanell1, and Rosa M. Badia1,2 1 Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Centro Nacional de Supercomputaci´on (BSC-CNS) {daniele.lezzi, francesc.lordan, roger.rafanell, rosa.m.badia}@bsc.es, SLA compliance by throttling a service application’s capacity. VHI API to achieve live migration across administrative domains. However, SPs do not own these resources; them with a seemingly infinite pool of computational, netwo, to achieve a common goal. uration between control and execution zone), VHI internal interface, network. So then, resources must be highly customizable. The document defines the functionalities of FaaS, its governance and precise objectives. <> This motivated a previous work aiming to design MAS-Scout, a framework that defines Multi-Agent Systems based on the principles of Scouting. collaborate by sharing their resources while keeping thick walls in between them; that is, each is an independent autonomous entity. between sites. Cloud computing [1], in all its different forms, gaining momentum as an alternative to traditional IT, and the reason, are clear: In principle, it allows individuals and companies to fulfill all their IT, needs with minimal investment and controlled expenses (both capital and, Cloud computing enables companies and individuals to lease resources on-, demand from a virtually unlimited pool. New specific collaboration models among service providers are needed for enabling effective service collaboration, allowing the process of serving consumers to be more efficient. The number of DIs can be changed while the system is. environment, together with the specific solutions that have been devised for RESERVOIR. Site configuration, topology, and so on, are not. Service Manager), VEEM is responsible for the federation of remote sites. The RESERVOIR architecture: major components and interfaces. Moreover, the number of, virtual execution environments must be dynamically and seamlessly, optimize alignment of infrastructure resources management with the, In this section we unravel a set of principles that enable Internet scale cloud, computing services. Cloud Strategy Partners, LLC is an expert consultancy firm that specializes in Technology and Strategy relating to Cloud Computing. be simultaneously reduced compared to cloud-based Federated Learning. However, because a person's lifestyle and health are continuously changing, most of this medical information is distributed among different institutions, cities, and even countries where the specific processes were undertaken, in possession of health insurance providers or even hidden inside a drawer of the patient's home. This will, satisfy the opportunistic placement requirement. Abstract—Cloud computing environments may offer different levels of abstraction to its users. In this regard, Cloud Computing (CC) promises low cost, high scalability, availability, and disaster recoverability, which can be a natural solution for some of the problems faced in storing and analyzing EMRs. Only recently have they begun to address the requirements of enterprise solutions, such as support for infrastructure service-level agreements. To get good consolidation, certain ta- bles must be shared among tenants and certain tables must be mapped into fixed generic structures such as Universal and Pivot Tables, which can degrade performance. Federated Cloud Computing Environment for Malaria Fighting Vilnius April-11-2011 Aurelio Rodriguez, Carlos Fernández, Ruben Díez, Hugo Gutierrez and Álvaro Simón. As this, new paradigm becomes prevalent, there are many exciting opportunities: Cloud, computing providers will probably achieve levels of efficiency and utilization, that seem imaginary just a few years ago, while consumers of cloud computing. Some of them are listed below: … , through the runtime intrusion detection. application might have from a cloud computing provider. www.egi.euEGI-InSPIRE RI-261323 Federated Cloud solution The Federated Cloud Solution is providing access to digital resources on a flexible environment, using common standards to support data- and computing intensive experiments: • a set of independent cloud services presented coherently as a single system using common standards. 15.3.1 Federation All cloud computing providers, regardless of how big they are, have a finite capacity. The Reservoir project is motivated by the vision of implementing an architecture that would enable providers of cloud infrastructure to dynamically partner with each other to create a seemingly infinite pool of IT resources while fully preserving their individual autonomy in making technological and business management decisions. Most modern operating systems have support, for being suspended, which includes saving all RAM contents to disk and later, restoring the runtime state to its prior state. As customers consume managed services offered by the cloud platform, they generate a gold mine of additional data for cloud providers. On the other hand, the ability to implement federated network service with virtual application, network (VANs), a novel overlay network that enables virtual network services, across subnets and across administrative boundaries [8,9]. stream In this paper, we firstly discuss the changing cloud infrastructure and consider the use of infrastructure from multiple providers and the benefit of decentralising computing away from data centers. must be able to monitor VEEs and their applications running at a remote site. However, each tenant configures and customizes the application to, suit his specific needs. All these aspects require a comprehensive review of the state of the art, including ongoing projects and studies in the area. Deployment restrictions are associated, to an specific VEE (although the restriction expression could involve other, VEEs, as can be seen in the affinity restrictions above) and passed down to the, VEEM along with any other specific VEE metadata when the VEE is issued for, creation through VMI. must support isolated virtual networks that span VEEHs and sites. Good performance is obtained by mapping the most heavily-uti- lized parts of the logical schemas into the conventional ta- bles and the remaining parts into Chunk Tables that match their structure as closely as possible. Fig. We present the design and implementation of a technology that enables live mobility of virtual machines between clouds, while enforcing the cloud insularity requirements of autonomy, privacy, and security. In, Section 15.4 we will present a model for federated cloud computing infra-, structure and provide definitions of the concepts used and in Section 15.5 we, describe the seurity considerations for such system. %���� Finally, future direction of cloud-based content sharing is suggested. Assuming the workload stays within bounds, the fundamental limitation on scalability for this approach is the number of tables the database can handle. Protocols like NFS, SAMBA, and CIFS are not secure. In the penultimate contribution, we propose and evaluate a new approach for the selection of the Checkpointing interval. In this chapter we presented the RESERVOIR model for cloud computing, that deals with these issues and extended on federation and security. Common practice is to map multiple single-tenant logical schemas in the applica- tion to one multi-tenant physical schema in the database. The monitoring, framework is agnostic to type and source of data being monit, No further functionality is required for the. Future Challenges in Federated Cloud Computing . It also explains why intelligent clouds are useful and important. These techniques allow, the attackers to eavesdrop as well as to change, delete, or divert data. It is possible for, each RESERVOIR site to select its own security framework; howeve, case of communication between SM and SP (SMI), the RESERVOIR cloud, has to use a common security framework shared with many different partners. basic control and monitoring of VEEs and their resources (e.g., creating a. VEE, allocating additional resources to a VEE, monitoring a VEE. 4 0 obj services will be able to free resources and focuses on their business. a utility vision, we need to offer cloud computing users full independence. The Federated cloud computing supports dynamic expansion and contraction of resources like VMs, services, Not true. This area shares all the hardware compo-, of SPs and other RESERVOIR sites. The same contract should be reused to, provision multiple instances of the same application for different tenants, tion parameters (memory, CPU, network bandwidth, storage) of indivi-, dual virtual execution environments seamlessly. For the different features, agreement, since it is necessary that the VEEM implement a way, whether it can take care of the VEE or not, attending to the SLAs defined in, the framework agreement. Cloud Federation Tobias Kurze , Markus Klems y, David Bermbach , Alexander Lenkz, Stefan Taiyand Marcel Kunze Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany We then show that modern hypervisors do a poor job in virtualizing the network, leaking details of the physical network into virtual machines. Businesses around the world are therefore giving enormous attention, to virtualized SOI technology nowadays [4]. actual usage during the active time interval. Ignacio M. Llorente Project Director . But in the current market of cloud, reverse auction (a mechanism to implement dynamic pricing) is not getting the attention from professionals that it deserves. We first present the RESERVOIR architecture itself, then we introduce the issues of service monitoring in a federated. The EU based EGI Federated Cloud is on-demand, capacity from other providers (see Figure 15.1). Definition of an open, loosely coupled cloud-computing stack in which each level operates Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing. members must be maintained to allow competing providers to federate. It is based on servicelevel agreements that provide external users with requested services. From the use case discussed in the previous section, we derived the following. In the long, term, scalability problems may be expected to worsen as cloud providers, serve an increasing number of on-line services, each accessed by massive, technologies have not been designed with interoperability in mind. Interoperability can be categorized into provider-centric and client-centric scenarios. Model for federated cloud computing: (a) Different cloud providers collaborate by sharing their resources while keeping thick walls in between them; that is, each is an independent autonomous entity. As clouds are introduced for use by enterprises, service providers, and governmental and educational entities, new challenges related to the interconnection between such clouds emerge. enterprise-grade federated cloud computing. component and the storage system are shared between multiple tenants. policies and via virtual circuits that involve routers and switches. After that, we propose and evaluate a multi-zones Checkpointing approach where each application can have more than one snapshot. PDF | On Mar 22, 2017, prathap R and others published A STUDY OF SECURITY CHALLENGES IN FEDERATED CLOUD COMPUTING | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Among these, we focus on Fault Tolerance and more particularly on the Checkpointing technique, which is relatively under-researched in the context of Cloud Computing. (storage, database, and application server) is part of this automated setup. The emerging cloud-computing paradigm is rapidly gaining momentum as an alternative to traditional IT (information technology). Since then, cloud computing has been evolved from static clients to dynamic ones from software to services. Dynamic pricing of computing resources in the cloud is now widely acceptable by its users. 9�t�����Գ�Q5�,������z�̦Gj�-|��{l_Qg��~s�ME�˘à��f�M� t���n_�� L��S=��o��� Z���F/S!�W`��j��� F=~�1�d�:�,��D�_�a��}�A{ ��D�~�����$60* ��1�-aU#� {��^��5�]"i�2~�~��w C�. Thus, the same, resolves all the security problems with the underlying, is addressed via the dynamic configuration of network, has to be performed and secure protocols has to. Furthermore, it categorizes and identifies possible Cloud interoperability scenarios and architectures. Requests are handled by the SAP Web dispatcher. In addition, we develop from the requirement the basic, principles that we believe are the cornerstone of future cloud computing, offerings. On the other hand, no additional functionality is needed from, ability to deploy a VEE in the remote site, so it will nee, communicate with the remote cloud by invoking the public API. In addition, the SM could update the deployment restric-, tions during the service lifespan, thereby changing the “contour condition, used by the placement algorithm. These platforms presented an unspecified, onment where it is possible to run any type of VEEs. More specifically, the document describes all the components forming the platform, the offered functionalities and their high-level interactions underlying the main FaaS functionalities. In this chapter, the current state and trends of CC in healthcare are presented as well as a detailed collaboration model based on intelligent agents focusing on the EHR sharing subject. All figure content in this area was uploaded by David Breitgand, All content in this area was uploaded by David Breitgand on May 07, 2020, BREITGAND, DAVID HADAS, MASSIMO VILLARI, PHILIPPE, MASSONET, ELIEZER LEVY, ALEX GALIS, IGNACI, Utility computing, a concept envisioned back in the, reality. %PDF-1.5 supporting opportunistic placement of VEEs at a remote site. needed. to load and execute all the VEEs. );Nݏ�~�93�Cvn��U*4� �F�A=;{��"k���ǏDV�"R�E�Օ���=~T亐�@~sZgWk����Go'/����S�8�z�����Ǐ��Q��Ȳ?�j�ʏ����x&��{ ��*������� The following diagram explains the evolution of cloud computing: Benefits Cloud Computing has numerous advantages. The firewall located next to the router increa, worthiness. We address this challenge in this thesis throughout our five contributions. The main reason for this sharing is to keep the TCO per tenant at a, virtual execution environment (represented as rounded rectangles); (b) the large. The new tenant runs through a series, of configuration questions and uploads master data items (e.g., product, catalog and customer lists). Cloud computing addresses the use of scalable and often virtualized resources. Federated Cloud: There are a number of bene ts in bringing together di erent cloud providers under a single umbrella resulting in a federated cloud [10, 11]. It is reasonable to assume that a tenant in this case is a, We briefly mention here a few aspects that are typical of virtuali, for hundreds or thousands of tenants while keeping a very low total cost, of ownership (TCO). SAP systems are used for a variety of business applications that differ by, version and functionality [such as customer relationship management, and enterprise resource planning (ERP)]. Recent studies show the benefits in utilizing multiple Clouds and present attempts for the realization of Inter-Cloud or federated Cloud environment. All the. Without such a threat model, security, designers risk wasting time and effort implementing safeguards that do not, Or, just as dangerously, they run the risk of concentrating their securi, measures on one threat while leaving the underlying architecture dangerously, exposed to others. To be used in Cloud Computing, this technique needs to be fully transparent and has to deal with the highly heterogeneous nature of the applications which are deployed in this environment. While cloud computing holds a lot of promise for enterprise computing. main requirements from a cloud computing infrastructure: provisioning of complex service applications based on a formal contract, specifying theinfrastructure SLAs. Second, cloud providers, will need to build mechanisms to ensure the service levels; without proper, warranties on the levels of reliability, serviceability, and availability, comp, are going to be reluctant to move any of the more critical operations to the, cloud. In the implementation of hosted business services, multi- ple tenants are often consolidated into the same database to reduce total cost of ownership. <> N S. MONTERO, YARON WOLFSTHAL, KENNETH NAGIN, LARS. 4.1 Architecture Description All the interfaces (SMI, are affected by the same issues, but we have to underline that the solutions in, some cases are different. apart from the features described for the baseline scenario. This, results in an inability to scale through business partnerships across clouds, providers. However, Cloud vendors have not taken into account Cloud interoperability issues and each Cloud comes with its own solution and interfaces for services. Cloud, computing services as offered by a federation of infrastructure providers is, expected to offer any user application of any size the ability to quickly scale up, its application by unrestricted magnitude and approach Internet scale. center who face different and fluctuating workloads. • allows the user to choose freely among a broader … The motivations for moving your business’ existing internal applications to the cloud, developing new applications in the cloud, or subscribing to cloud- based software as a service products are clear. The VEE Host Interface, (VHI) will support plugging-in of new virtualization platforms (e.g., hypervi-, sors), without requiring VEEM recompilation or restart. Considering the VMI interfaces, the RESERVOIR, system administrator has the full capability to manage security policies and to, apply them on both the sides (endpoints of site A and site B). ment restrictions have to be checked not only at service deployment time but, also for migration. ments are not supported by the architecture, or if there is not enough spare, capacity even including the framework agreements, a site may choose to, perform opportunistic placement. The RESERVOIR, site administrator needs to know at any time the state of threats, with a strong, Cloud computing as a new computing paradigm has the potential, tically changing the way we use computers. Migration. Due to its increasing demand for service, the user has a huge advantage in paying for the service currently needed. <> Using these features as a, base, a number of federation scenarios are defined, comprised of subsets of this, The first feature to consider is the framework agreement suppo, work agreements, as defined in the previous section, may either be supported by, the architecture or not. But just in case you missed them, or this is the first paragraph about the cloud you’ve ever read, here’s a quick breakdown: You don’t have to buy lots of hardware. Its main objective is to introduce the concept of Federation-as-a-Service (FaaS) and the SUNFISH platform. This document is the main high-level architecture specification of the SUNFISH cloud federation solution. IntroductionA Typical Use CaseThe Basic Principles of Cloud ComputingA Model for Federated Cloud ComputingSecurity ConsiderationsSummary and Conclusions Since the emergence of Cloud Computing, the access to computing, storage and networking resources have never been so cheap and simple, which contributed to increase the hype around this paradigm. Mechanisms to, build and maintain trust between cloud computing consumers and cloud, computing providers, as well as between cloud computing providers among. We seek to highlight the fundamental requir. The Service Management Interface (SMI) with its service manifest, exposes a standardized interface into the RESERVOIR cloud for service, providers. For a given application type, the SAP, system components consist of generic parts customized, parts custom-coded for a specific installation. At the center of this emerging intelligent cloud is deep learning, which is undoubtedly the most disruptive technology of this decade, supported by the rise of powerful computing and storage environments. (1) The offered, virtual network service is fully isolated, (2) it enables sharing of hosts, network, devices, and physical connections, and (3) hides network related. (b) Applications running in this cloud of, clouds should be unaware of location; that is, virtual local networks are needed for the, inter-application components to communicate. Furthermore, VMI’s suppo, VEEM-to-VEEM communication simplifies cloud federation by limiting the, horizontal interoperability to one layer of the stack. The cloud is emerging as a data-centric, intelligent platform ready to deal with the next generation of applications and workloads. As a result, enterprises looking at transforming their IT, operations to cloud-based technologies face a non-incremental and, To address these issues, we present in this chapter a model for business-driven, federation of cloud computing providers, where each provider can buy. Just as we can power a variety of devices, ranging from a simple light bulb to complex machinery, by plugging them into the wall, today we can satisfy, by Regardless of the approach taken, multi-tenancy, calls for flexible virtualization schemes where, for example, the DBMS. Each can be further divided into federated clouds, hybrid clouds, multi-clouds and aggregated service by broker. More, than ever before, cloud computing offers challenges with regard to the, articulation of a meaningful language that will help encompass busines, requirements and that has translatable and customizable service parameters, Probably the most critical issue to address before cloud computing can become, the preferred computing paradigm is that of establishing trust. Just as we can power a variety of devices, ranging from a simple light, bulb to complex machinery, by plugging them into the wall, today we can, satisfy, by connecting to the Internet, many of our computing need, from full pledge productivity applications to raw compute power in the form of. Moreover, VEEHs must support transparent VEE migration to any, compatible VEEH within the federated cloud, regardless of site location, The layered design stresses the use of standard, open, and generic protocols, and interfaces to support vertical and horizontal interoperability between, layers. themselves, are essential for the success of any cloud computing offering. 4 Federated Agile Cloud Security Architecture Now we present the cloud security architecture, which can offer the defender inherent capabilities of situational awareness and early warning against dynamic cyber threats in federated cloud computing environments. The virtual execution environment host refers to the set of components managing the, In summary, the key challenges in all these use cases from the point of view, variety of service applications executed by thousands of virtual execution, environments, on top of a complex infrastructure that also includes, increasing HW utilization and optimizing power consumption, while. It gives detailed descriptions on how to incorporate intelligent abilities such as learning, negotiation, collaboration, and communication to cloud systems by using IAs. The architecture is centered on proactive defense. If framework agreements are not supported, this implies. resources to offer some service. So one site is not aware of the host addresses on another site. knowledge. For example, to achieve scale and fault tolerance, design principles from cloud computing can be applied to create compute clusters at the edge that are managed by the cloud, an approach called “federated computing.” In this talk, Krishnamoorthy explores a range of edge computing system architectures, with a focus on federated computing. In this zone the weak ring of the system is represented by the, VEEM. establishment of large-scale virtual networks, free of any location dependency, that in turn allows completely “migratable” virtual networks. The goal is to facilitate an open, service-based online economy in which resources and services are transparently provisioned and managed across clouds on an on-demand basis at competitive costs with high-quality service. We then propose a method for plugging the network-related leaks by ensuring that the virtual network traffic is encapsulated inside a host envelope prior to transmission across the underlying physical network. This work is an effort to identify the facts in the cloud market that are responsible for current condition of reverse auction. companies will be reluctant to put in there sensitive services. federated cloud (cloud federation): A federated cloud (also called cloud federation ) is the deployment and management of multiple external and internal cloud computing services to match business needs. an estimation of the relative cost of deploying the VEE on each federated site. With evolution of cloud, new challenges are emerging, and the responsibility of the professional is to provide solution to these challenges. Management (BSM) is a management strategy that allows businesses to, align their IT management with their high-level business goals. characteristics such as link throughputs, location of hosts, and so forth. Just as in other utilities, where we get service without knowing the internals, of the utility provider and with standard equipment not specific to any provider, (e.g., telephones), for cloud computing services to really fulfill the computing as. The best module in the VEEM for the SLA. Crossref Mauricio Paletta, A Scouting-Based Multi-Agent System Model to Deal with Service Collaboration in Cloud Computing, Systems and Software Development, Modeling, and Analysis, 10.4018/978-1-4666-6098-4.ch010, (282 … Thus, in addition to serving local requests (from the local. an enterprise for internal users (i.e., enterprise employees). The need for federation-capable cloud computing offerings is, also derived from the industry trend of adopting the cloud computing paradigm, extend these clouds with resources leased on-demand from, Any federation of cloud computing providers should allow virtual application, to be deployed across federated sites. Because of this impact, they should be billed as. Federated identity management, though, does not leverage these abstractions; each user must set up her identity management solution. In addition, it prevents small and medium cloud infrastructure, providers from entering the cloud provisioning market. components (router, switch, cable, etc. The federation of cloud resources allows clients to optimize enterprise IT service delivery. interfaces could be instead exposed to the following attacks: These kind of threats are aimed toward provoking a. inability to perform ordinary functions. that federation may only be carried out in a more ad hoc opportunistic manner. These security threats are now emerging as the biggest obstacle in the, widespread deployment of virtual infrastructures for cloud computing. Abstract—Cloud Computing is becoming one of the most important topics in the IT world. The cloud computing paradigm is popular due to its pay-as-you-go model. With respect to these objectives, the document proposes the high-level architecture of the SUNFISH platform: the software architecture that permits realising a FaaS federation. The Virtual Execution Environment Manager (VEEM), The Virtual Execution Environment Host (VEEH), . in previous section as the basis for differentiating among them. Both types, of advance reservations are only valid for a certain time, since they impact the, utilization of resources at a site. Utility computing, a concept envisioned back in the 1960s, is finally becoming a reality. and also the ability to transfer the state files to the remote site. However. This section, is devoted to present these differentiating features. The figure shows two Each RESERVOIR site has a logical representation with three different layers, but these layers can be compounded by one or more hardware compo, Figure 15.5 gives an overview of these entities and relative mapping with a, simplified view of the hardware. requests a certain SLA-governed capacity for a given cost from the remote sites. effectiveness, they also ensure optimized use of system and network resources, reduced carbon footprints, and simplify management of their underlying, resources. Hot or live migration does not, allow for system downtime, and it works by transferring the runtime state while, belonging to a service are potentially connected to virtual networks, should this. This way, a, business can optimize its IT investment and improve availability and. databases, managing the customizations and configurations of tenants, and getting patches and newer versions of the software from SAP (the, automated by a Web-based wizard. Cloud users can take relational and non-relational databases in the form of services or can run their own database on computing resources provided by the cloud. A brief review of the Internet history reveals the fact that the Internet evolved after the formation of primarily independent networks. databases and communicate asynchronously by message with each other. Cloud computing services are, by definition, hosted by a provider that will, simultaneously host applications from many different users. Besides cost-. This can provide a catalogue of services and resources available as well as makes applications interoperable and portable. The landscape of cloud computing has significantly changed over the last decade. Federations of clouds may be constructed in various ways, with dispar, feature sets offered by the underlying implementation architecture. The “pay as you go” billing model, applies charges for the actually used resources per unit time. A single database management system (DBMS) serves the SAP system. Different implementations of each layer will be able to interact with, each other. A federation is the union of several smaller parts that perform a common action. This survey initially discusses all the relevant aspects motivating Cloud interoperability. The Reservoir model and architecture for open federated cloud computing The cloud has all essential components to deliver compelling deep learning capabilities thus offering services for building applications based on cognitive computing, predictive analytics, intelligent Internet of Things, interactive personal assistants and bots. To grow beyond this capacity, cloud computing providers, able to form federations of providers such that they can collaborate and share, their resources. These “elasticity” capabilities should be enacted, automatically by cloud computing providers to meet demand variations, just as, electrical companies are able (under normal operational circumstances) to, automatically deal with variances in electricity consumption levels. distributed DoS), flooding, buffer overflow, p2p-attacks, instead there are: VEEH, VEEM (in-bridge config-, can be considered a trusted area. Some threats, related to communication, can be classified, in-the-middle, TCP hijacking (spoofing), service manifest attacks (malicious, manifest/SLA format injection), migration and security policies and identity, so on. All threats related to SI are managed through a simple monitoring. The hypervisor (VEEH) uses the network, storage, CPU, and ram (host). When a user is authenticated in a federated service, every other service in that group will respect that authentication. To support federation, the originating data center. The baseline federation should be possible to build on top of most, public cloud offerings, which is important for interoperability. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Model for federated cloud computing: (a) Different cloud providers, The infrastructure provider must manage the life cycle of the application, Setting up a new tenant in the SaaS for SMBs case is completely, The customers are billed a fixed monthly subscription fee or a varia, There are several well-known approaches to multi-tenancy of the same, Sample SAP system deployments. The, internal threats related to these phases can be classified as follows: (1) threats. With fully virtualized networks, this may be, : Depending on the requirements of the federation scenario, only a, scenario includes a number of features that the baseline federation, scenario offers advanced functionality such as cross-site virtual network, federation scenario offers the most complete set of features, including. The chapter also includes details on the way in which services and service providers are clearly defined in this particular system. RESERVOIR site pretends to be someone else). The pricing information included in, the FA is used by the SM to calculate the cost of resources running in remote, systems (based on the aggregated usage information that it received from the, local VEEM) and correlate this information with the charges issued by those, remote sites. This feature may be used both when there is an existing framework, . Such systems. The ability to migrate machines across sites defines the, migration, the VEE is suspended and experiences a certain amount of down-, time while it is being transferred. In the middle tier, there are two types of components: multiple stateful. Furthermore, virtual applications need to, be completely location free and allowed to migrate in part or as a whole between, sites. It is the bridge between two areas, and it allows the exch, among the zones. To this end, Reservoir could leverage and extend the advantages of virtualization and embed autonomous management in the infrastructure. An SAP system is a typical three-tier system (see Figure 15.2) as follows: dialog instances (DIs) and a single central instance (CI) that performs, central services such as application-level locking, messaging, and registra, tion of DIs. Researchers, developers, and companies have made efforts to develop mobile, Web, desktop, and enterprise e-health applications raising the importance of interoperability and data exchange between e-health applications and Health Information Systems (HIS).