Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Portfolio Connection Systems, Electrical Centers, Wiring Assemblies and Charging Solutions . Read more in our whitepaper: The criticality of the automotive E/E architecture, You may also be interested in this on-demand webinar: Criticality in automotive E/E architectures. A mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) has a dual electrical architecture, which consists of a 12 V network connected through a DCDC to a 48 V network. And, automated emergency braking systems can bring vehicles to a complete stop even if the driver is not paying attention. and provide robust data coherency in order to tackle the challenges that come sophistication. 20. There are two specific features. changes and the resulting shifts in industry dynamics, manufacturers and Pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) specifically are becoming viable in part due to advances in attainable battery energy density, realising useable vehicle performance. Integrating a 2.2-MHz integrated gate driver, the devices can enable twice the power density, achieve up to 99% efficiency, and reduce the size of power magnetics by up to 59% compared to existing solutions. While there used to be little else than diesel and gasoline engines in the past, now powertrain solutions include all degrees of electrification. It’s proportional to the temperature. We never had a TO-220 type of package. By using lead acid batteries, the weight of the car increases a lot (>>1000 pounds). Other technologies such as vehicle to grid, vehicle to home, solar charging of Electric Vehicle, etc. features are aided or enabled by electronic components, embedded software, and price. Some advocate for a centralized architecture Both have similar power levels, power delivery. 2 Hybrid and electric vehicles present unique challenges when it comes to electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. Between the parasitics and the design and all, the current generation of passive and transistor packaging does not hold up to the performance that wide bandgap promises. When thinking about power, if you want to optimize and deliver properly, having analog high-precision circuits to give you that low-noise capability allows you to get the most out of what you're trying to deliver. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels, fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. ABSTRACT. An electric vehicle (EV), also called electrics is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. If you've got to shift domains in the voltage, you have to have an isolation barrier. Next-gen 600- and 650-V gallium-nitride FETs developed by Texas Instruments double the power density and achieve 99% efficiency. Those topologies also require isolation, so that’s the place we're able to merge in with different technologies. suppliers face a challenging road ahead. Consumers want increased freedom to To obtain a copy of the EVU study guide for this and other available EVU courses, please complete the form on this page. The reason GaN can provide the power density and efficiency is because we use new topologies. The size and problem. their development processes to integrate across domains, automate design tasks, Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Introduction A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has two types of energy storage units, electricity and fuel. The implementation we're doing, we take that GaN FET and integrate a high-performance silicon driver to optimize the performance of FET, and we put it in an advanced package that allows you to get thermals out efficiently without compromising electrical performance. The challenges created by the In some instances, it can eliminate the need for specific components altogether, which leads to significant savings. In future vehicles, OEMs will consolidate these That allows you to switch fast, which is a big advantage. As vehicle features continue to evolve and grow in sophistication, previously unrelated subsystems will come into contact. And now, we know what that electrical system is called. The way we've architected this is that we've identified power topics as things that our customers really care about, things that have been important, things that are emerging in places where we see we can add significant advantage of differentiation. more stringent safety requirements increase the challenge of vehicle design. The first is the voltage level. Engine management, braking, steering, infotainment, and other Today, a majority of vehicle It was intended to allow more powerful electrically-driven accessories, and lighter automobile wiring harnesses. In the automotive device, there's a trend and oftentimes requirement to get to that higher voltage, that 650-V level, versus industrial, where 600 V make sense when a lot of the offline power is power supplies. It basically gives the end user flexibility for any type of motherboard they're working on. Capitalizing on the vast opportunity of advanced vehicle common and unique components, such as the correct version of an ECU or software Addressing an urgent industry concern As the automotive industry is transitioning from hardware- to software-defined vehicles, the relevance of software for core technology trends is increasing rapidly. This daughtercard, with its two devices, has everything you need to get up and running. Reduce your power dissipation and push your system that much harder. Just as a master architect constructs a home or building, our engineers use their experience, along with proprietary design tools, to create a virtual model of the E/E architecture. You have to talk about low noise and precision. While the industry often relies on a standard of tightly integrated hardware and software architecture, the approach does pose several challenges. They're so astronomically high that your magnetics can be the size of a match head. The battery, the electric motor, control electronics and regenerative braking are all discussed. Following a successful application, the project was ap- The high-speed nature has been done for a long time as well. I spent a lot of time myself personally addressing power density, but the key is the isolation technology. Whether it's a MOSFET or other GaN FETs, that device will passively conduct current of the reverse direction, but you get that body die out and you burn a lot of power. We want our customers to make the most differentiated products. Today's drivers expect their cars and trucks to work flawlessly for as long as they own them, yet remain un-aware of the underlying complexity of the electronic nervous system that makes everything work. An optimal result is only possible with a view of the function and interplay of electronic components in the complete vehicle. I mentioned we can send the voltage a current, which is useful. harness complexity, accelerated development cycles, and the need to develop new These challenges will only Ensuring that all teams For example, a subway rapid transitelectrical system is composed of the wayside electrical power supply, w… That's what's really new and differentiated with what we're doing. Electricity means that a battery (sometimes assisted by ultracaps) is used to store the energy, and that an electromotor (from now on called motor) will be used as traction motor. As I see it, the term architecture is a fitting one to describe the up-front process of defining a vehicle's electrical and electronic system early in the vehicle design cycle. efficiency and product quality, and emerging challenges such as ballooning technologies requires comprehensive digitalization throughout an automotive To get a better handle on what this represents for the engineering community, we sat down with Steve Tom, who manages the GaN product line within TI’s High-Voltage Power business unit. integration is a tremendously complex system of electronic control units It further improves packaging so electrical and electronic components fit in smaller or more accessible places. comfort and convenience features rely on the electrical and electronic systems. We have seen new designs reduce mass by up to 20% and cost by as much as 30% — all while improving functionality. Coping with the complexity of the electrical-electronic architecture in modern vehicles requires an integrated design methodology. electrical distribution system design and integration services. been validated. (ECUs), sensors, actuators, and wiring to connect it all together. limit investments to save on cost, but increasing architectural complexity and Thus, it becomes more challenging to track and coordinate among thousands of applications for everything from the most advanced infotainment and passive are explained in another PDF that we would send to you later. Global automotive technology company Aptiv, unveiled its new Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA) at CES on Tuesday.SVA is a flexible and scalable vehicle-level architecture designed to reduce vehicle complexity during assembly, while improving safety and support software for … Low carbon vehicle developments are an area of intense activity for automotive manufacturers. Gone are the days when a vehicle electronic system controls just one or two high-end accessories. company, connecting IT, engineering, and manufacturing with a single digital Also, some of the fine-pitch, some of the QFN-type packages we use, those aren't new. People have always been trying to push one, five, 10 kilowatts, or more. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), compared to classic internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, are fairly simple and easy to operate.The simplest powertrain architecture consists in a high voltage battery, an electric motor with power electronics controller and a single speed gearbox. platform, all of which are needed to enable functional connectivity between An electric car simply consists of three main components – Battery, controller and electric motor. And suddenly that power dissipation dropped to near zero because your FET is now back on. How far this consolidation should go; Sign up for Electronic Design eNewsletters. So, like a synchronous converter, your current is going to reverse and we can sense that reversal. contains between 70-100 ECUs. We focus on the half-bridge. Electrical systems are groups of electrical components connected to carry out some operation. In response, automakers can adopt several important measures. Steve joined TI after graduating from the University of Michigan with BSEE and MS IOE degrees. It touches all areas of the vehicle, including harsh environments and densely packaged real estate. required to cascade and implement design changes. supply chain is growing longer and larger due to the increasing E/E content in So, you're also thinking about thermal as well as parasitics. Now, are you using an open-source thing, like a PMBus kind of thing, or is this a proprietary command bus? We actually kept it pretty simple for this one—it’s just a simple PWM out, you could run that directly into a micro. Now, more than ever, vehicle manufacturers need a supplier capable of analyzing their needs, and designing and manufacturing complete systems to meet all requirements. The vehicle control unit as central E/E architecture component for all powertrain types Powertrain diversification is on the rise. S.A. Dossett, C.A.V. It's also important in a lot of the topologies we do with GaN. The new Ford electrical vehicle architecture has officially been named “fully-networked vehicle,” or FNV for short, Ali Jamoul, North America Engineering Director at Ford Motor Company, confirmed to Ford Authority at a … The challenge is, can you get the high power, the high speed, and that fine-pitch packaging, and do it all at the same time? But if you can't control it with precision, you can't get the right switching waveforms. Mechanical systems accounted for most of this complexity for much of the car’s history, You’ve got to get the right size pads. All Rights Reserved. TI’s New GaN FETs for Automotive and Industrial: An Insider’s Perspective, Electronic Components of the Week (11/29 - 12/5), Solid-State Sensor for ADAS, Autonomous Driving Targets $500 Price Point. need to move upstream in the value chain to offer full wiring harness and Pricing has become very aggressive—it’s being able to be competitive with existing technologies. Among the biggest concernsare increased complexity, reduced flexibility, and often-unavoidable vendor lock in, which can limit flexibility. already a key challenge. with technological and organizational change. © 2020 Siemens Digital Industries Software. Lear’s knowledge of the vehicle architecture and expertise in systems integration provides a competitive advantage in designing and delivering power distribution systems that support traditional electrical architectures, as well as emerging high-power and hybrid systems. Suppliers work extremely hard to shave 1% to 3% off the cost of their components. Let's start with the trends in wide-bandgap power electronics, because in this case, talking about the trends is a good place to start. And because the way it was optimized on a car, it gives you flexibility if you need to wire it to do different areas. The P4 architecture gives the vehicle four-wheel drive capabilities, with the front axle powered by an internal combustion engine and the rear axle powered by an electric motor. dramatically more complex due to technological advances and consumer trends. possible across vehicle platforms to reduce costs in design and manufacturing. © 2020 Endeavor Business Media, LLC. the underlying electrical and electronic (E/E) architecture. Embedded software has also come to play a dominant role in vehicle You may read the blog posts related to electric vehicle charging. In late 2009, the partners of the research project ELVA – Advanced Electric Vehicle Architec-tures have identified the need for scientifically investigating the prospects of electric vehicles in terms of architecture and design. And it's nice to hear other aspects of the advantages of the technology. Is the industrial device simply a version of the automotive device, or does it do things differently? build, as well as corresponding connectors and terminals across the vehicle Hughes, in Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition (VTMS10), 2011. The digitalization strategy must also support agility and collaboration deliver the sophisticated vehicles demanded by the market. You say reference designs are coming, but what about evaluation kits? The design of the physical architecture of the electrical system has a big impact on vehicle cost and weight. It's just not going to work. In this environment, the On that daughtercard, we have the two devices, so you have everything you need to get up and running. What I would say is it's exciting to see what the technology can do. However, the magnitude of savings available at the systems level is much greater, as long as an integrated methodology is used to develop the architecture. I live on the high-voltage side of the transformer; you have to be able to cross over the appropriate way to get to whatever you're trying to power. Adaptive cruise control systems allow modern cars to slow down and speed up as needed to maintain a driver-determined following distance (figure 2). Longer and larger supplier pipelines can greatly increase the time their business still relies on making and selling large volumes of vehicles. engineering. equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and their suppliers. You’ve got to be able to distribute the power where you must get it off the board. E/E architecture complements how automakers want to build their vehicles and how drivers want their vehicles to perform. the supplier ecosystem to provide desirable features only compounds this There's a couple of differences. suppliers are expanding the services they offer to cover the full range of contrast, OEMs simultaneously try to re-use bills-of-materials (BOM) as much as It's a hobby of mine, because without the packaging, you can't get the power. And I think if you look at the power levels, the power levels aren't new. With each development, we ensure that the architecture guarantees the desired functionality and transition the concept to series production by way of calculation, simulation and testing. Third, the average new car today The key is, you have to get those ideal waveforms because if you get clean square waveforms, you're not burning efficiency and seeing parasitic ringing. They might be subsystems of larger systems and have subsystems of their own. technologies to stay ahead of competition. networks. You've got to get the heat thing. That was our intent there. Which brings me to the next point, because packaging is a significant issue when it comes to wide-bandgap semiconductors. functionality. To get the performance, you're pushing a lot of power, and you can deliver that efficiency. This can be as simple as a flashlight cell connected through two wires to a light bulb or as involved as the space shuttle. Since then, cruise control has continued to evolve. development of vehicle software in-house. Developed using proprietary materials and processing with a GaN-on-silicon (Si) substrate, these GaN FETs can address applications from driving electric-vehicle (EV) onboard chargers to empowering hyperscale and enterprise computing platforms. One of the bigger differences is, as I mentioned before, in the automotive version we put the power pad on top, so you can implement it with a cold plate. There's also another feature here. ... Algorithm for selection of motor and vehicle architecture for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Meeting Code Execution and Data Performance Needs for Auto Apps, Automotive GaN FET Features Integrated Driver, Transphorm’s Gen III GaN Platform Passes AEC-Q101, GaN Power Transistors: Master Strokes on a Power-Supply Canvas. You know what I mean? companies move to scale and creating profit from a new technology once it has And hence the reason for TI's focus in this direction. Electric vehicles are not something new to this world, but with the technological advancement and increased concern on controlling pollution has given it a tag of future mobility. Block Diagram of an electric car. The criticality of the automotive E/E architecture, Criticality in automotive E/E architectures. TI’s new GaN FET addresses both automotive and industrial applications. In automobiles, a 42-volt electrical system was an electrical power standard proposed in the late 1990s. In: India conf (INDICON), annu IEEE, vol 1, pp 875–878. In your release, you talk about your ultra-cool packaging. This increased challenge equates to greater cost, as investment is necessary to but electrical and electronic systems have steadily increased in complexity of these architectures create new challenges for automotive original So, we've spent a lot of time talking about the GaN process, because that's kind of the headliner, but without the packaging, you can't pull it off. Between large-scale technological safety features to the automatic door locks. importance of the underlying E/E architecture is paramount. We know those big leads at that speed, it's just an inductor. evolution of the E/E architecture are not confined to vehicle design and Thanks for addressing that, because the two things you most often hear are power density and how the frequencies are so high. Indeed, the challenge only grows as component development, from design through manufacturing. Our programs have been recognized and availed by Robert Bosch, Suzuki, and Hyundai to the name of a few. And this is requiring the industry to rethink today’s approaches to vehicle software and electrical and electronic architecture. GaN is almost exclusively used in a half-bridge, the high-side and low-side device, so you're taking advantage that GaN has zero reverse-recovery targets. As told earlier, the battery used for this car is very expensive. known as Tier 1 suppliers, are caught between legacy challenges like production Electric car rebates and incentives A great reason which attracts consumers to go for EVs is the country and state incentives available in the form of various subsidies and policies. A discussion of the Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) architecture and the component elements that must be present within a BEV system. The device for industrial use sits in a 1U rack for a telecom or an enterprise PSU. Electrical system design is the design of electrical systems. Everybody's been talking about power density and efficiency, but let’s talk about something we don't often see, and that's TI touting the isolation and low noise of these parts. Ford has employed a new electric vehicle architecture on upcoming models like the Mustang Mach-E and F-150 pickup to make this possible but up until now, we didn't know what the system was called. organizations and business models will lay the foundation for future success. become more intense as companies continue to advance vehicle technologies, Safety, handling, propulsion and entertainment are just a sampling of the many systems that depend upon electrical and electronic (E/E) architecture. Second, the typical automotive The base of any car is the battery. As vehicle features continue to evolve and grow in sophistication, previously unrelated subsystems will come into contact. The first vehicle to use the BEV3 GM electric vehicle architecture will be a midsize luxury CUV, which is expected to debut in April with a Cadillac badge attached. OEMs are attempting to provide this customization on a mass scale, as across the OEM-supplier ecosystem. with a few, or a singular, very powerful ECU(s) managing vehicle functions. So, when we look at it, there's really no reason not to move over to GaN and take advantage of what it can bring in. vehicles. We want to make it versatile. Often the systems are combined with other systems. You can put it on a daughtercard and stand it up. The result of this innovation and This is changing OEM-supplier Here we are presenting a document “Electric vehicle PDF” that explains the basics of electric vehicles. Architectural drawing symbols form an important role in any architecture drawing and help to define elements such as floor levels, lighting types and service locations. Systems that previously evolved independently will begin to integrate, and depend on each other to realize new functionalities. Image: MHEV 12-48V electric system architecture The main difference is that the 12 V generator doesn’t exist anymore since its function is taken over by the 48 V electric machine. particularly in the automated driving space. Today, a majority of vehicle features are aided or enabled by electronic components, embedded software, and the underlying electrical and electronic (E/E) architecture. In response, long-time automotive Most vehicles have more than one mile of wiring, dozens of computer modules and multiple serial data links to implement the functionality demanded in today's market. however, is a point of major debate. We talk about active power management. One is the digital temperature reporting. into fewer more powerful control units. Texas Instruments recently expanded its high-voltage power management portfolio with next-generation 650- and 600-V gallium-nitride (GaN) field-effect transistors (FETs) for automotive and industrial applications. Others consider a distributed architecture with a greater number of ECUs a In Germany, Wright is responsible for reliability engineering and global E/E architecture technology development. We focused on integrating the driver to get the highest DVT, because if you have slow DVT, you're just burning power. So, isolation's important for that. Moving forward, Tier 1 suppliers will The systems also feature enhanced reliability and better assembly line compatibility. Contracting with additional suppliers and expanding I'm just excited that we can be part of it. These suppliers, In each case, OEMs will look to Since the hardware and software challenges related to two-wheeler architecture design are quite different from that of four wheelers. In Ford, for example, developed an all-new electric vehicle architecture for the sole purpose of enabling over-the-air updates, translating to fewer visits to the dealership for software-related issues. On the process side, they can pursue a more dynamic software-cycle plan that involves frequent releases decoupled from rigid, distant vehicle-platform SOP dates (Exhibit 2)… I think sometimes we take power management for granted because everything needs power. With computer modeling and simulation tools, design direction can be verified to meet customer requirements for cost, mass, packaging efficiency and more. All this painstaking attention to detail in the design phase pays off when it comes to manufacturing a complete E/E system for customers. Can you talk a little bit about that aspect, what's coming in the way of designs and kits and the like? better option, primarily to create redundancy in vehicle systems. Automotive electronics are electronic systems used in vehicles, including engine management, ignition, radio, carputers, telematics, in-car entertainment systems, and others.Ignition, engine and transmission electronics are also found in trucks, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, and other internal combustion powered machinery such as forklifts, tractors and excavators. As vehicles become equipped with more electronically driven features like navigation systems, satellite radio, airbags, climate control and power closures, the development of E/E architecture has evolved into a more prominent role in the transportation industry. Using this approach, new designs reduce mass by up to 20% and cost by as much as 30%. Focused on both electrical distribution and electronic components, Delphi's E/E architecture design methodology helps ensure the optimal selection of vehicle data networks, diagnostics, fault tolerance, physical/functional partitioning, and power and signal distribution. We want to get our customers up and running as soon as possible. They're having to find ways to think about how to integrate these in, but that's what's exciting about what we're seeing with some of our new parts. And that's why we’re so focused on it—it’s that important. customize their vehicles through optional features without paying a premium Numerous vehicles already benefiting from the E/E architecture expertise are on the road in Asia, Europe and North America — and more are on the way as OEMs discover the value in working with suppliers offering an E/E architecture vision. suppliers look to innovate via the E/E architecture, they will need to evolve Is there anything you feel we haven't touched on that you think is important to leave with the audience? As OEMs and By putting a silicon driver with our GaN FET, you get that brawn of GaN, but you also get the brains and the precision of a silicon driver, so you're getting the best of both worlds. DIYguru has prepared a one-of-a-kind certification course with job assiatnce on Fundamentals of Electric Vehicle Engineering of 90 Days in partnership with E-Mobility companies providing you with 100% self-paced online program. However, as we are focusing on only the electric two-wheelers in the blog, we will stick to a few particular vehicle ECUs critical for the design of an Electric Two-Wheeler. thread. If we're testing that current, we just turn the FET back on automatically. That's all you hear. devices. The turn on assist, we can call it ideal diode mode or other different ways, but it's that optimal sensing and turn on that you're able to get. All rights reserved. One of the things the release brings up is in integrated high-speed protection and digital temperature reporting for active power management and thermal monitoring. Over time, vehicles have become The end performance—whether it's the power density, whether it's the efficiency, whether it's just reducing thermals—if you can get the efficiency up, you can remove fans in your set of cooling fans. Tuatara, the World’s Fastest Production Car? Therefore, you just get an overall simplified system. We're trying to also come up with packages so that our customers are doing new things. We knew that we had to get a different type of package. I see you have this daughtercard available. The introduction of cruise control in the late 1950s was the first integration of electrical and mechanical systems in a vehicle (figure 1). relationships, as automakers begin to source only hardware from their supplier Hence, we call an E/E system a natural integrator. That benefit is what's really exciting, and that's what I enjoy seeing as people find different ways to use the parts. His responsibilities include advanced product, process and technology development in Ohio. Modern cars contain millions of lines of code that make up That's why we've gone with this kind of QFN style—this low inductance—but at the same point, designed so that you can get the thermal mechanics. Dave Wright is director of advanced engineering and electrical/electronic architecture for Delphi Packard E/E Architecture. We want to make it so you can basically plug it in. It appears to have dropped the sobriquet "Global B," but General Motors' new electrical architecture has bowed in drawings and video.This is the "digital vehicle platform" GM … OEMs are investing in increasing their software competency to bring the They've been used in low voltage for a long time. We optimize the layout; the waveforms are clean. If you're just blasting the device, it's going to lead to trouble. As I see it, the term architecture is a fitting one to describe the up-front process of defining a vehicle's electrical and electronic system early in the vehicle design cycle. Major OEMs and suppliers alike are realizing that changes to their If they want to do totem-pole PFCs, or any number of multi-level typologies, or more higher-power advanced typologies, that's your basic sub-building blocks you can plug in. understand the change being implemented and its effects on their domain is